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 About Virtlab
Carl Spitzweg (1808-1885) "Der Alchemist"

 Virtlab Demonstration
Pietro Longhi (1701 - 1785) "The Alchymist"

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Internal piece of a Virtlab apparatus.

Gases Resources For Students And Teachers!

Equations of state, ideal gas law, van der Waal's equation, Dalton's law of partial pressure, kinetic theory of gases, Maxwell-Boltzmann speed-distribution equation.

What is Virtlab?

  • Virtlab is a laboratory manual that uses laboratory simulations to perform its experiments. Simulations are also available as electronic spreadsheets that you or your students can build and explore.

  • Our authors pioneered this approach and have refined it over many years. We are among the first educators in the world to integrate personal computers and science education.

  • Virtlab is divided into two sections. "Free Virtlab" shows you how the process works. "Full Virtlab" offers you our complete storyline. If you are uncertain about the value you will find in Virtlab then subscribe for one month at US$ 4.95. If you like what you see then extend your subscription for six months using the far more cost effective 6 month subscription of US$14.95.

Chapter 3 - Gases:

  • Exercise 3.1 - Equations of State: In this exercise an ideal gas (a gas that consists of molecules that occupy no space and are subject to no intermolecular forces) is confined to a chamber that is closed at one end by a moveable pistion (not shown). The relationships between pressure, volume and temperature that exist within the container are described by an equation of state and explored with Virtlab's simulation. For students who wish to, the mathematical and graphical power of an electronic spreadsheet is also used to explore these relationships. A nonideal gas, represented by the van der Waal's equation, is also explored using electronic spreadsheets.(Exercise 3.1 is part of "Free Virtlab".)

  • Exercise 3.2 - Partial Pressures: In this laboratory (not shown) different gases are mixed together in the same kind of confining chamber described in Exercise 3.1 (not shown). Students discover that, for an ideal gas, the total pressure exerted by the gas on the walls of the container is a function of the total number of gas particles and is independent of the type of particles present. (Exercise 3.2 is part of "Full Virtlab".)

  • Exercise 3.3 - Kinetic Theory And The Ideal Gas Law: In the nineteenth century, one of the great successes of modern chemistry was the application of the concepts of motion, work, energy, and momentum to the view that gases are collections of randomly moving particles of definable mass and negligible size that do not interact except by making perfectly elastic collisions with one another. In this exercise a stream of low-pressure gas is delivered to a set of rotating shutters (seen on the left), and a detector positioned beyond the shutters measures that number of gas molecules that successfully run the gauntlet. Different shutter rotation speeds pass molecules traveling at different speeds and the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed-distribution equation is plotted. (Exercise 3.3 is part of "Free Virtlab".)

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Virtlab has registered users in over 100 nations:

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Virtlab is based on the simulations and guided exercises found in N. Simonson & Company's pioneering text: Dynamic Models in Chemistry by Daniel E. Atkinson (University of California, Los Angeles, CA), Douglas C. Brower, and Ronald W. McClard (Reed College, Portland, OR). Laboratories are also under development for Dynamic Models in Physics (Volume I: Mechanics) by Frank Potter (University of California, Irvine, CA), and Charles W. Peck (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA), and Dynamic Models in Biochemistry by Daniel E. Atkinson (University of California, Los Angeles, CA), Steven G. Clarke (University of California, Los Angeles, CA), and Douglas C. Rees (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA)

Virtlab's browser requirements are quite high. You must have a recent version of the Flash Plugin (version 8 or higher) installed and Javascript and cookies must be enabled. This is the default situation in most browsers. The site has been tested on recent versions of Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, and Safari but should work on most browsers. We have been unsuccessful in getting Virtlab to work successfully with the Opera Internet Browser. We will continue to seek resolution to remaining browser incompatibilities.

Copyright (c) 1989 - 2011 N. Simonson & Company. All rights reserved. No part of this website may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. Javascript DHTML API by Walter Zorn, http://www.walterzorn.com, Copyright (c) 2002-2003 Walter Zorn. All rights reserved. SWFObject Flash Player Detection and Embed by Geoff Sterns, http://blog.deconcept.com/swfobject/, Copyright (c) 2006 Geoff Stearns. Walter Zorn's website no longer exists. Word has reached us that he is deceased. We are deeply in his debt!

A new exercise Simple and Fractional Distillation now exists. Other recent simulations include explorations of stoichiometry (moles, mole fractions, limiting reagents), the Ideal Gas Law and the Equation of State, Charles Law, Boyles Law, Raoults Law, and acidic dissociation (including isoelectric points). Stoichiometry is an important subject and Charle's law, Boyle's Law, together with Raoult's Law and acid base titrations are important matters. Daltons Law of Partial Pressures, sometimes called Dalton's Law of partial pressures play crucial roles can help in understanding fractional distillation. dalton's law of partial pressures (daltons law of partial pressures) should be understood by all students. Along with fractional distillation. Will you be ready for acid base titration or acid base titrations. We hope so. And don't forget or stoichiometry exercises.