QUICK FIND

 About Virtlab
Carl Spitzweg (1808-1885) "Der Alchemist"

 Virtlab Demonstration
Pietro Longhi (1701 - 1785) "The Alchymist"

Adobe Flash plugin unavailable.
Visit www.adobe.com for assistance.

This animation is interactive in Virtlab.

Liquids, Solutions, And Phase Equilibria
Resources For Students And Teachers!

Ideal solutions, Raoult's law, dynamic equilibrium, simple distillation, fractional distillation, phase diagrams, triple point.

What is Virtlab?

  • Virtlab is a laboratory manual that uses laboratory simulations to perform its experiments. Simulations are also available as electronic spreadsheets that you or your students can build and explore.

  • Our authors pioneered this approach and have refined it over many years. We are among the first educators in the world to integrate personal computers and science education.

  • Virtlab is divided into two sections. "Free Virtlab" shows you how the process works. "Full Virtlab" offers you our complete storyline. If you are uncertain about the value you will find in Virtlab then subscribe for one month at US$ 4.95. If you like what you see then extend your subscription for six months using the far more cost effective 6 month subscription of US$14.95.

Chapter 4 - Liquids, Solutions, And Phase Equilibria:

  • Exercise 4.1 - Ideal Solutions: Raoult's Law: Consider a closed, evacuated container into which two liquid substances of different volatility are introduced (not shown). Eventually, the rate at which the two kinds of molecules leave and return to the liquid assume a constant value and the system is in dynamic equilibrium. The equilibrium vapor pressure above the liquid for each substance is called a colligative property (i.e., it is proportional to the mole fraction of that substance in the solution). Students explore several different colligative properties and learn how use such properties to find the molecular weights of unknown substances. (Exercise 4.1 is part of "Free Virtlab".)

  • Exercise 4.2 - Simple And Fractional Distillation: A reasonably complete simulation of the simple distillation of a binary solution is introduced and explored (not shown). Students are also invited to build an electronic spreadsheet model of a device engaging in fractional distillation.(Exercise 4.2 is part of "Full Virtlab".)

  • Exercise 4.3 - Phase Diagrams: The concept of a "triple point" is often difficult for students to understand. The laboratory shown at the left permits students to monitor the phase (solid vs liquid) and equilibrium vapor pressure of a homogeneous substance at different temperatures. By tilting the beaker under different conditions it is possible to find the point at which solid, liquid, and gaseous CO2 are in simultaneous equilibrium. (Exercise 4.3 is part of "Full Virtlab".)

    Click here to join "Virtlab"

Return To The Virtlab Main Page

What People Are Saying


Virtlab has registered users in over 100 nations:

  • Pakistan - It's amazing.
  • Italy - Give students extra time to work on scientific method and processes.
  • Germany - It makes studying more comfortable.
  • Scotland - it will make my lesson plans more interesting for my students.
  • USA - It seems really super awesome!
  • Egypt - An amazing site, wishing to help both students and teachers.
  • Thailand - It's very exciting. My students love it.
  • India - I love this site ... I have heard from my friends that it is an ultimate thing.
  • Indonesia - It makes it easier to imagine what I am teaching about.
  • Kenya - It offers exciting opportunities for both teachers and learners.
  • Brazil - Your educational potential ís fantastic!
  • United Arab Emirates - It's coooooool.

Virtlab is based on the simulations and guided exercises found in N. Simonson & Company's pioneering text: Dynamic Models in Chemistry by Daniel E. Atkinson (University of California, Los Angeles, CA), Douglas C. Brower, and Ronald W. McClard (Reed College, Portland, OR). Laboratories are also under development for Dynamic Models in Physics (Volume I: Mechanics) by Frank Potter (University of California, Irvine, CA), and Charles W. Peck (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA), and Dynamic Models in Biochemistry by Daniel E. Atkinson (University of California, Los Angeles, CA), Steven G. Clarke (University of California, Los Angeles, CA), and Douglas C. Rees (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA)

Virtlab's browser requirements are quite high. You must have a recent version of the Flash Plugin (version 8 or higher) installed and Javascript and cookies must be enabled. This is the default situation in most browsers. The site has been tested on recent versions of Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, and Safari but should work on most browsers. We have been unsuccessful in getting Virtlab to work successfully with the Opera Internet Browser. We will continue to seek resolution to remaining browser incompatibilities.

Copyright (c) 1989 - 2011 N. Simonson & Company. All rights reserved. No part of this website may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. Javascript DHTML API by Walter Zorn, http://www.walterzorn.com, Copyright (c) 2002-2003 Walter Zorn. All rights reserved. SWFObject Flash Player Detection and Embed by Geoff Sterns, http://blog.deconcept.com/swfobject/, Copyright (c) 2006 Geoff Stearns. Walter Zorn's website no longer exists. Word has reached us that he is deceased. We are deeply in his debt!

A new exercise Simple and Fractional Distillation now exists. Other recent simulations include explorations of stoichiometry (moles, mole fractions, limiting reagents), the Ideal Gas Law and the Equation of State, Charles Law, Boyles Law, Raoults Law, and acidic dissociation (including isoelectric points). Stoichiometry is an important subject and Charle's law, Boyle's Law, together with Raoult's Law and acid base titrations are important matters. Daltons Law of Partial Pressures, sometimes called Dalton's Law of partial pressures play crucial roles can help in understanding fractional distillation. dalton's law of partial pressures (daltons law of partial pressures) should be understood by all students. Along with fractional distillation. Will you be ready for acid base titration or acid base titrations. We hope so. And don't forget or stoichiometry exercises.